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design education and visual communication
authored by chris m hughes

Intuitive Grids in Illustrator

Saturday, 18 September 2010

Swiss graphic designers Karl Gerstner and Joseph Müller-Brockmann formalised the use of modular grid layouts - consistent horizontal divisions from top to bottom in addition to vertical divisions from left to right. The overall aim was to create well-proportioned designs where the layout could be controlled to maximise legibility and cohesion.

Their work pioneered a new way of controlling the placement and cropping of images as well as the alignment and spacing options for text. Today, grids are the foundation of both print and web layout design.

InDesign and Illustrator
Many students are happy enough to use guides and grids for their layouts when they work in InDesign. InDesign is brilliant for spreads and multi-page documents, controlling columned type, and features powerful grid and guide tools.

But when it comes to Illustrator, it's very easy to have blocks of text, objects and images randomly floating around on the artboard, in a permanent state of 'nearly' being in the right position. All sorts of arbitrary decisions and tweaks are needed to move these elements into a 'good-looking' position during the final composition.

This is because Illustrator is more about experimentation. It doesn't support page spreads, but is better for stand-alone pieces (e.g. posters, packaging), and for creating original vector graphics (logos and complex type). With its multiple artboards and almost endless canvas space, Illustrator is like a huge digital workbench.

So students are somewhat mystified when we start encouraging them to use grids in Illustrator. The emphasis on precision seems counter to the looser creative processes the tool encourages. And they aren't keen on the maths involved.

But of course, they are already working within the constraints of the grid, they just don't realise it. Their intuitive decision-making about element placement is derived from simple laws which are found in nature, and which are hotwired into our visual senses. These laws are the Golden Ratio and the Rule of Thirds. Both laws are based on aesthetic proportions first documented in antiquity by the Egyptians and the Greeks.

The good news is that if we incorporate these laws into a grid, composition becomes easier to control, the decision process is simplified, and visual communication becomes more effective.

The downside is that creating a grid like this in Illustrator can be complicated, because Illustrator lacks some of the more user-friendly tools of InDesign, such as margin guides and the baseline grid.

Intuitive Grids
As a starting point, it's simple to create an 'intuitive' grid. It requires little or no maths - you can round up some of the more awkward measurements - and the result is a robust grid which can be customised for any stand-alone print solution. The grid is a mixture of three kinds of fundamental guides:

1. Margins
2. Baseline Grid
3. Rule of Thirds

In the following example, we are creating an A4 poster grid in Illustrator CS4.  Firstly we need to create a guide layer to on top of all the artwork.  Then create the margins on that layer.

A4 is 210mm by 297mm, so using the 6% rule, my side margins will be 12.6mm each, and the top/bottom will be 17.8.  To create this, draw a rectangle on the artboard and (1) align it to the artboard. Then (2) make the centre of the rectangle the reference point. Now (3) in the dimension measurements, just type in the minus values of each axis.

Setting Margins



Your rectangle will now reduce in size to the margin boundary of your artboard. No need to drag any guides.  You can convert this shape to guides if you wish, using view > guides > make.  But before you do, you may want to add the baseline grid.


Baseline Grid
A baseline grid allows you to align type (and images or shapes) so that regardless of size, you retain proportional spacings down the page. This is called 'vertical rhythm'.

This grid will use the smallest unit of type that will be in your design - 12pt is a typical standard value. The measurement is then twofold - the pointsize plus the leading. To create this, first right-click on your rulers and change the units from Millimetres to Points.

Ruler Units to Points



Next, select the rectangle and go Object > Path > Split Into Grid. The Split dialogue box appears. Note that the default gutter size is 12pt - this is our leading. Now just click on the row numbers until your pointsize is as close as possible to 12pt. In this example, at 32 rows it reaches 12.03. Edit that value to exactly 12.

Intuitive Row Count



Now go Object >  Group. The baseline grid is complete. Doubleclick the layer and convert it to a template. This locks the layer at 50% opacity.


Rule of Thirds
Regardless of page size, rule of thirds creates nicely proportioned modular units that also include the visual centre rule and (through further divisions) the golden proportion. It's a 3 X 3 grid, with four junctions or 'hotspots' where the visual power of a placed element is at its greatest.

Create a new layer and then go to the line tool. Expand the tool options - one of them is rectangular grid tool. Click once on the artboard and set the horizontal and vertical divisions to 2. You'll need a 0.5pt stroke with no fill. Now drag from the top lefthand corner of the artboard to create the 3 X 3 grid. Ignore the margins - we want this grid to encompass all of the printed page.

3 X 3 Grid



Finally, using the direct select tool, compensate (remember we rounded up the margin size and rounded down the pointsize) by nudging the central horizontal rule of thirds lines onto their closet baselines.

Compensate



Once the grid is complete, you can test it. A good exercise is to simply place some lines of text in your layout. Make sure the pointsize and, more importantly, the leading are multiples of the 12pt unit. If you then set one line of text flush to any baseline, all the other lines sit flush to their corresponding baseline. This gives you perfect vertical rhythm on the page.

In this example, we have 72/60 in Old Sans Black (a freely available variation of Aksidenz Grotesk):

Baseline flushed



You can now experiment by adding further grid layers. For example, a 6 or 12 column grid will divide your rule of thirds up to create a flexible set of grid modules. You can include gutter sizes in the split option as well. Additional divisions will depend on the layout you have in mind - an intuitive call on behalf of the designer.

Diagonals
If your design features diagonal elements, two extra steps allow you to create a diagonal baseline grid:

1) Set the margin rectangle, then make a copy of it. Set the baseline grid into the copy, and then rotate it to the exact angle you plan to use. Drag the sides of the baseline grid out to cover the whole canvas. You should now have a margin guide, a rule of thirds guide, and your diagonal baseline grid.

2) Go to Preferences >  General and set the Constraint Angle to the value of your baseline grid. Now when you type on the page, or drawn any shape, it automatically displays at the angle your want. You can then place these elements flush to a baseline for perfect angled vertical rhythm.


Diagonal Grid


More:
The Grid System
Complex Grids @ whattype
Thinking with Type/Grids

Words of Wisdom

Tuesday, 7 September 2010

During the summer break, my HND class were given the task of creating a short film as an inspiration piece for the incoming new Graphic Design class. The theme chosen was 'words of wisdom', and this film was the standout submission.

HND Year 2 student Emma Hart's work includes some inventive typographical ideas, a trip to a print room, and clips from her work placement at Whitespace, the Edinburgh agency which has just been awarded Scottish Design Consultancy of 2010.

Infographics Showcase

I'm currently fascinated by infographics - visual representations of information, data or knowledge. Infographic visuals allow complex information to be explained quickly and clearly, and are now widely used in journalism, technical writing and education.

Infographics works in both print and interactive media. But that doesn't mean that infographics are new. They've been around a while, a famous example being Harry Beck's London Tube Map (1931), but we've come long way from pie charts and graphs - designers are now able to integrate poster stylisation and sophisticated typography into their work without interfering with the information being communicated.

I've put togther some standout examples which demonstrate the technique. They also double up as great looking posters in their own right.






















Population of Dead



Digital Nostalgia











Our Amazing Planet explores Earth from its peaks to it mysterious depths.

Neville Brody on the inaugural Anti-Design Festival

Thursday, 2 September 2010



The Anti-Design Festival was devised by design legend Neville Brody. Unfortunately I won't be able to make it down to London to see it, but I've been using their pdf pamphlet at work as a showcase of how to break all the layout rules you can think of (you can download it off the ADF website.)

It's Nice That posted a great interview with Brody where the design legend explains what the idea was all about and how designers could get involved:

Can you tell us a little about the Anti Design Festival?
The Anti Design Festival will run from 18-26 September on and around Redchurch Street in Shoreditch, London. The ADF gathers contributions of art and design that challenge contemporary stereotypes. This is work that is seen as un-commercial, dangerous, and anti-establishment. For artists, designers, and other creatives, this is an opportunity to exhibit work alongside contributors including Jonathan Barnbrook, Stuart Semple and Stefan Sagmeister.

How long have you wanted to put on an event like this?
The London Design Festival has been going on for 9 years. It’s time for a change. More broadly, the ADF is a response to 25 years of cultural deep freeze in the UK. It attempts to unlock creative fires and ideas, exploring space hitherto deemed out-of-bounds by a purely commercial criteria.

What are you trying to highlight?
We have forgotten why we are here. We have lost touch with what makes us tick, what drives us. That fire of creative possibility has started to die, and it is time to re-light it. The Anti Design Festival was born out of a need for change. A need for something new, ugly, scary and dangerous. We welcome no_use, no_function and no_fear. We welcome anarchy, without the stereotypical.

What are you looking for and how can people submit work?
This is the chance to show previous work that has failed with clients or instructors, or to produce completely new work without the imposition of market restrictions. Because this festival is completely nonprofit in orientation, we cannot pay for contributions. However, this is an opportunity for your work to engage a wide audience in a context that will challenge and provoke the public to rethink the role of art and design in contemporary culture.

We have two separate streams that you can submit your work to. Submissions will be accepted until Friday, 13 August 2010 at 11:59PM BST. There is no need to confirm your interest.

The first stream is for small, reproducible multiples. Submissions can take any form you want, but the bulk of the work should be cheaply-made and reproducible so that visitors can take it and use it however they want. For more information, including creative prompts and a submission upload form, please see this link. Please write to andy@researchstudios.com with any questions related to this first stream.

The second stream is for large, one-off pieces of various sizes that will be framed and hung closely alongside each other. The theme for this stream is State of Mind, Mind of State, which considers the reciprocal relationship between personal psychology and state control. For more information, including submission details, please see this link. Please write to submit@antidesignfestival.com with questions related to this second route.

The Anti Design Festival takes place during the last week of London Design Festival, are you looking forward to seeing anything during the festival?
The Anti Design Festival is anti-everything. The Anti Design Festival is anti-nothing. While the ADF is not against design, there is also a need for change. We are not anti-design as much as we are anti-everything.